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قديم 04-12-2009, 03:31 AM   #1
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برووق is on a distinguished road
Unhappy ابي ترجمة ضروري ياليت تساعدوني .. وجزاكم الله الف خير

السلام عليكم ورحمة الله وبركاته ..

شحالكم جميعااا ...

هذي اول مشاركه لي ..

واتمنى انكم تساعدوني بترجمة الى العربي ..

لاني مو فالحه بالانجليزي وحدي حدي اعرف

والماده عن علم النفس .. ومن كتاب اجنبي ..

ولازمتني الترجمه ضروري اتمنى ما تردوني وانتم فيكم خير وبركه

وجزاكم الله الف خير ..


ABOUT THIS TEXTBOOK
I designed this book to help you understand and remember concepts and information about the psychology of women. Let’s first consider the four themes of the book, and then we'll examine some features that will help you learn more effectively .
Themes of the Book.
The subject of the psychology of _women is impressively complex, and the discipline is so young that we cannot point out a large number of general principles that summarize this diverse field. Nevertheless, you’ll find that several important themes are woven throughout this textbook. Let's discuss them now, to provide a framework for a variety of topics you will encounter.
Theme 1: Psychological Gender Differences Are Typically Small and Inconsistent. The earlier section on research biases noted that published results may represent gender differences as being larger than they really are. However, even the published literature on men’s and women’s abilities and personalities shows that gender similarities are usually more impressive than gender differences. In terms of permanent, internal psychological characteristics, women and men simply are not that different (Aries, 1996; Basow, 2001; Hyde St Plant, 1995). In gender research, one study may demonstrate a gender difference, but a second study - apparently similar to the first—may demonstrate a gender similarity. As Rhoda Unger (1981, 1998) has remarked, gender differences often have a "now you see them, now you don’t" quality.
You’ll recognize that Theme 1 is consistent with the similarities perspective discussed on page 7. Theme 1 also specifically rejects the notion of essentialism. As we noted earlier, essentialism argues that gender is a basic, stable characteristic that resides within an individual.
Let's clarify two points, however. First, I am arguing that men and women are psychologically similar; obviously, their ****** organs make them anatomically different. Second, men and women acquire some different skills and characteristics in our current culture because they occupy different social roles (Aries, 1996; Eagly, 2001). Men are more likely than women to be chief executives, and women are more likely than men to be secretaries. However, if men and women could have similar social roles in a culture, those gender differences would be almost nonexistent.
Throughout this book, we will see that gender differences may appear in some situations but not in others. Gender differences are most likely to occur in these three contexts (Basow, 2001; Unger, 1998):
1. When people evaluate themselves rather than when a researcher records behavior objectively;
2. When people are observed in real-life situations (where men typically have more power) rather than in a laboratory setting (where men and women are fairly similar in power);
3. When people are aware that they are being evaluated by others.

In these three kinds of situations, people drift toward stereotypical behavior. Women tend to respond the way they think women are supposed to respond; men tend to respond the way they think men are supposed to respond.
Theme 1 focuses on gender as a subject variable, or a characteristic within a person that influences the way she or he acts. We will see that the gender of the participant or subject (i.e., the person who is being studied) typically has little impact on behavior.
Theme 2: People React Differently to Men and Women. We just pointed out that gender as a subject variable is usually not important. In contrast, gender as a stimulus variable is important. When we refer to gender as a stimulus variable, we mean a characteristic of a person to which other people react. When psychologists study gender as a stimulus variable, they might ask, “Do people react differently to individuals who are female than to people who are male?”
Gender is an extremely important social category—perhaps the most important social category-in North American culture (Bern, 1993). To illustrate this point, try ignoring the gender of the next person you see!
Throughout the book, we will see that gender is an important stimulus variable. In general, we will see that males are more valued than females. For example, many parents prefer a boy rather than a girl for their firstborn child. In addition, men are typically more valued in the workplace. In Chapter 2, we will also discuss how males are represented more positively in religion and mythology as well as in current language and the media.
If people react differently to men and women, they are illustrating that they believe in gender differences. We could call this phenomenon "the illusion of gender differences/' As you will see, both men and women tend to exaggerate these gender differences.
Theme 3: Women Are Less Visible Than Men in Many Important Areas. Men are typically featured more prominently than women in areas that our culture considers important. A quick skim through your daily newspaper will convince you that males and ”mascu1ine” topics receive more emphasis. In Chapter 2, we will discuss the research on all forms of media, confirming that men are seen and heard more than women are. Another example is the relative invisibility of girls and women in the classroom, which arises because teachers tend to ignore females (Sadker 8 Sadker, 1994). Females may also be relatively invisible in the English language. In many respects, our language has traditionally been androcentric: The male experience is treated as the norm (Basow, 2001; Bem, 1993,1996). Instead of humans and humankind, many people still use words such as man and mankind to refer to both women and men.
Psychologists have helped to keep some important topics invisible. For example, several major biological events in women’s lives have received too little attention from psychology researchers. These events include menstruation, pregnancy; childbirth, and breast-feeding. Women are visible in areas such as women’s magazines, advertisements for laundry soap, the costume committee for the school play and low-paying jobs. However, these are all areas that our culture does not consider important or prestigious.
About This Textbook
As we noted in a previous section, women of color are even less visible than White women. in Chapter 2, we will emphasize how women of color are absent in the media. Psychologists have only recently paid attention to this invisible group (Guthrie, 1998). When was the last time you saw a newspaper article or television show about women who are Asian American, Latina, or Native American?
Theme 4: Women Very Widely from One Another. In this textbook, we explore how women differ from one another in their psychological characteristics, their life choices, and their responses to biological events. In fact, individual women show so much variability that we often cannot draw any conclusions about women in general. Notice that Theme 4 contradicts the essentialism perspective, which argues that all women share the same psychological characteristics that differentiate them from men.
Think about the variability among women you know. They probably differ dramatically in their aggressiveness or in their sensitivity to the emotions of others. Women also vary widely in their life choices in terns of careers, marital status, ******ual orientation, desire to have children, and so forth. Furthermore, women differ in their responses to biological events. Some women have problems with menstruation, pregnancy, childbirth, and menopause; others find these experiences neutral or even positive.
In the previous section, we discussed ethnicity and we noted that the diversity within each ethnic group is remarkable. Throughout this book, when we examine the lives of women in countries outside North America, we will gather even further evidence that women vary widely from one another.
We have emphasized that women show wide variation. As you might imagine, men show a similarly wide variation among themselves. These within gender variabilities bring us full circle to Theme I of this book. Whenever variability within each of two groups is large, the difference between those two groups is not likely to-be statistically significant. In Chapter 5, we will discuss this statistical issue in more detail. The important point to remember now is that women (and men) show wide variability.
How to Use This Book Effectively
This textbook has been designed to provide many features that will help you learn the material more effectively Read this section carefully to make the best use of these features.
Each chapter begins •with a set of 10 true-false questions. You can find the answers at the end of each chapter together with the page number where each item is discussed. These questions will encourage you to think about some of the controversial and surprising findings you’ll encounter in the chapter.
The second feature in each chapter is an outline. `When you start a new chapter, be sure to read through the outline to acquaint yourself with the scope of the chapter. The chapters themselves contain a number of demonstrations, such as Demonstrations 1.1 (page 7) and 1.2 (page 25). Try them yourself, or invite your friends to try them. Each demonstration is simple and requires little or no equipment. The purpose of the demonstrations is to make the material more concrete and
personal. Research on memory has demonstrated that material is easier to remember if it is concrete and is related to personal experience (Matlin, 2002; T. B.Rogers et al., 1977).
In the text, new terms appear in boldface type (e. g., gender) and are defined in the same sentence. I have also included some phonetic pronunciations, with the accented syllable appearing in italics. (My students tell me that they feel more confident about using a word in discussion if they know their pronunciation is correct.) Concentrate on these definitions. An important part of any discipline is its terminology.
Many textbooks include summaries at the end of each chapter, but I prefer section summaries at the end of each major section. For example, this chapter has five section summaries. This feature helps you review the material more frequently so that you can feel confident about small, manageable portions of the textbook before you move on to new material. At the end of each section, you may wish to test yourself to see whether you can recall the important points. Then check the section summary to see whether you were accurate. Incidentally
some students have mentioned that they learn the material more effectively if they read one section at a time, then take a break, and review that section summary before reading the next portion.
A set of chapter review questions appears at the end of each chapter. Some questions test your specific recall, some ask you to interrelate information from several parts of the chapter, and some ask you to apply your knowledge to everyday situations.
At the end of each chapter is a list of the new (boldface) terms, in the order in which they appear in the chapter. You can test yourself to see whether you can define each term; this list of terms also includes page numbers, so that you can check on the terms you find difficult. Each of these terms also appears in the subject index at the end of the book.
A final feature, also at the end of each chapter, is a list of several recommended readings. These are important articles, books, or special issues of journals that are particularly relevant to that chapter. These readings should be useful if you are writing a paper on one of the relevant topics or if an area is personally interesting to you. I hope you'll want to go beyond the information in the textbook and learn on your own about the psychology of women!


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